Unemployment refers to a situation when people are willing and able to work are not gainfully employed in any productive activity. It is a situation in the labour market where the supply of labour is greater than its demand. The average age of working people in a country is 15 - 64 years. At present, India's democratic dividend is 67%. If we do not empower these people, the days to come will be terrible. The United Nations of Population found that the Golden Age of India is the period 2020 - 2040. This is the period when young people in India are going to be able to work the most. Democratic dividend will increase till 2030. Until 2040, that curve will remain flat. Then it will be reversed. This is the period when young people in India are going to be able to work the most. What will be the condition of our country if these people cannot be given jobs ??
In the study says that the number of dependents living in India is high. After 2040, there will be a huge increase in the number of dependent people. India will become a country of people who are mostly old. We need to achieve adequate development in these 20 years with young people. People are able ready to work. They have the skills for it.
Types of unemployment.
1. voluntary unemployment
Voluntary unemployment is a unemployment by choice. A person is voluntary unemployed if that person is working even when work is available. Anyway, voluntary unemployment is not regarded as unemployment in economics.
2. Under employment
Under employment is a term used to describe those who take part time jobs but are seeking full-time employment or those who takes job below their capacity. People with education and skills accept unskilled jobs rather than remaining unemployed.
3. Disguised unemployment
This is a peculiar kind of a unemployment that exists in the agriculture sector of developing economic like India. Disguised unemployment is the situation where more people are employed in agriculture than necessary. Even if some people employed in agriculture are withdrawn, output will not decline. Disguised unemployment exists due to unsatisfactory growth in industrial and tertiary sectors. Disguised unemployment is widespread in india.
4. Open unemployment
Disguised unemployment cannot be seen in open because people are actually seen working. But the unemployment is hidden. Just the opposite of this is open unemployment. Open unemployment refers to the situation where people are willing to do work, but are not working due to non-availability of work.
5. Seasonal unemployment.
Agricultural is a seasonal occupation. It can provide jobs only during the busy sowing and harvesting seasons. In between, employment opportunities are limited. Therefore, agricultural Laboure’s remain unemployed for more than 6 months on an average in a year. This seasonal unemployment can be solved only through expansion of non-agricultural jobs, multiple cropping, dry land farming, poultry and dairy development, etc.
6. Technological unemployment
Technological unemployment is caused by the application of modern technology. Modern technology is capital intensive and labour replacing. The adoption of capital-intensive technology in the place of labour-intensive techniques causes technological unemployment.
7. Cyclical unemployment
Cyclical unemployment is the unemployment associated with business cycle. There are upswings and downswings in business cycle. Booms and recovery are upswings. Recessions and depression are downswings. Downswings are characterized by unemployment. This unemployment caused by business cycles is called cyclical unemployment.
8. Frictional unemployment
In all economics, including developed ones, we can always find some people unemployed. This will be purely temporary unemployment. Some people will be moving from one job to another. In between, they may be unemployed. Such temporary unemployment is called frictional unemployment. This is caused by frictions in the labour market.
9. Structural unemployment
Structural unemployment is caused by changes in the structure of the economy. When an agrarian economy gets industrialized, the importance of agriculture declines and that of industry increases. Consequently, employment opportunities in agriculture declines and that in industry increases. The unemployment caused by such structural changes in the economy is known structural unemployment.
Cause of unemployment in India
1. High population pressure
Population is increasing fast in India. But jobs are failing to keep pace with population. This creates excess supply of labour force.
2. Slow growth rate of economy
In India, adequate number of jobs cannot be created because of the slow growth rate of economy.
3. Inappropriate technology
Labour - intensive technology is not used both in agriculture and industry. This technology is not appropriate in a labour surplus and capital scarce country like India.
4. Inappropriate education system.
In India emphasis is not being given on vocational and technical education.
5. Rural - urban migration
Employment opportunities are less in rural areas. At the same time, wage rates are high in urban areas. These factors lead to large scale migration of rural workers to urban areas. This causes urban unemployment.
6. Decline in traditional industrial activities
With the emergence of modern production technologies, some traditional industries in India have lost their competitive strength. As a result, a large number of artisans have left their jobs.
7. Defective employment planning and manpower planning
Government has not pronounced employment strategy to deal with the issue of transfer of surplus agriculture labour to unorganized industry or service. As a result, in many sectors labour is abundant while in some sectors there is scarcity.